The Joe Rogan Experience: Podcast Notes

Welcome to my notes for the Joe Rogan Experience, released on 10/15/20. You can click here to watch the episode.

As you’ll hear on the podcast, I’m less interested in a dogmatic approach to carnivore diets, and more interested in looking at patterns this way of eating shows us. If we prioritize meat and organs, understand that plants exist on a spectrum of toxicity and avoid the most toxic ones (a discussion of plant toxins is below), and strictly avoid excess seed oils (source of polyunsaturated fats like linoleic acid) I believe we will thrive as humans. This manner of eating mirrors what our ancestors have done for thousands of generations and millions of years and is written into who we are. This part of what I consider #theremembering. Welcome.

These notes are by no means exhaustive. My book is the best resource for all of the details regarding each of these topics, with over 650 references. We were not able to discuss everything on the podcast but I hope we were able to hit some highlights and that this material will be helpful.

Anthropology 

Tubers as fallback foods and their impact on Hadza hunter-gatherer

Hadza Prefer honey and meat, and use tubers as “fallback” foods.Women stop digging for tubers when meat is available.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19350623/

Hunter-Gatherers as Models in Public Health

Hunter-Gatherer populations display robust health, in stark contrast to “westernized” humans

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/obr.12785

Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet

Hunter-gatherers favor animal foods and meat

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.23148

A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution

DHA from animal foods appears to have played a crucial role in hominid development. This essential omega-3 fatty acid is not found in significant quantities outside of animal foods eaten nose to tail.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23206328/

The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race

Jared Diamond’s (author of Collapse, Guns, Germs and steel, and other books) thesis statement about the profoundly negative impact of agrarian lifestyles on humans.

https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/the-worst-mistake-in-the-history-of-the-human-race

Disease and Death at Dr. Dickson’s Mounds

George Armelagos’ research regarding a hunter-gatherer population in present day Illinois transitioning to pastoralism and suffering negative health consequences.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305399228_Disease_and_Death_at_Dr_Dickson's_Mounds

Human Health and the Neolithic Revolution: an Overview of Impacts of the Agricultural Transition on Oral Health, Epidemiology, and the Human Body

The agricultural revolution (Neolithic revolution) and it’s detrimental effects on human health

https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1186&context=nebanthro

Meat in the human diet: An anthropological perspective

Our ancestral to transition to a meat/organs rich diet had profound impacts on the growth of our brain, and and the progression of hominid evolution.

With the change in the human diet from Australopithecus to Homo genera the size of our large intestines declined while our brain grew, allowing a change in the rib angle. This energetic trade off has been referred to as the Expensive Tissue Hypothesis.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00194.x

Change in the human gut size and thoracic structure with increased reliance on animal foods

Bone marrow storage and delayed consumption at Middle Pleistocene Qesem Cave, Israel (420 to 200 ka)

Evidence from 420k years ago that Homo stored bone marrow, suggesting appreciation for this food.

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/10/eaav9822

Empire of the Summer Moon

Bloodwork

Coronary artery calcium score 7/2020

Quest Quanam Results

This bloodwork was taken after a hard workout, likely contributing to the elevated hs-CRP.

hs-CRP lower on the next draw without an intense workout the day prior

We did not discuss TMAO on the JRE podcast, but there is a large amount of evidence for reverse causation with diabetes/heart disease and little for a direct effect here. Note uric acid is low despite a large amount of meat. I’ve done a video on gout

here.

Onegevity Health Results

High diversity, no pathogenic organisms, low inflammation. Increased Proteobacteria (bile tolerant) due to an animal based diet. Similar transitions are observed in the Hadza seasonally when more meat is consumed.

Seasonal cycling in the gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6353/802

Carbohydrates are not to blame for insulin resistance

Physical activity patterns and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in hunter-gatherers

Hadza people remain free from insulin resistance despite the inclusion of fruit/honey in the diet.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27723159/

Low serum insulin in traditional Pacific Islanders-The Kitava Story

Kitavans insulin sensitive despite 50+% of dietary calories from carbohydrates.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10535381/

Metabolic Studies in the African Pygmy

Mbuti often use honey as 20-50% of their caloric intake depending on time of year.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC302138/

Epidemiological studies in a total highland population, Tukisenta, New Guinea Cardiovascular disease and relevant clinical, electrocardiographic, radiological and biochemical findings

Despite high carbohydrate intake, Tukisentans do not display insulin resistance

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0021968173900313

Case Studies with a Nose to Tail Carnivore (termed “PKD” or paleolithic ketogenic diet here) diet for multiple conditions

A child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) successfully treated with the Paleolithic ketogenic diet: A 19-month insulin freedom

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285152979_A_child_with_type_1_diabetes_mellitus_T1DM_successfully_treated_with_the_Paleolithic_ketogenic_diet_A_19-month_insulin_freedom

Childhood Absence Epilepsy Successfully Treated with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257146708_Childhood_Absence_Epilepsy_Successfully_Treated_with_the_Paleolithic_Ketogenic_Diet

Complete Cessation of Recurrent Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) by the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet: A Case Report

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322291809_Complete_Cessation_of_Recurrent_Cervical_Intraepithelial_Neoplasia_CIN_by_the_Paleolithic_Ketogenic_Diet_A_Case_Report

Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet (PKD) As A Stand-Alone Therapy in Cancer: Case Studies

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331812176_PALEOLITHIC_KETOGENIC_DIET_PKD_AS_A_STAND-ALONE_THERAPY_IN_CANCER_CASE_STUDIES

Crohn’s Disease Successfully Treated by the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306373055_Crohn's_disease_successfully_treated_with_the_paleolithic_ketogenic_diet

Successful Treatment of Patient with Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272744889_Successful_treatment_of_a_patient_with_obesity_type_2_diabetes_and_hypertension_with_the_paleolithic_ketogenic_diet

Gilbert’s Syndrome Successfully Treated with Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275034122_Gilbert's_Syndrome_Successfully_Treated_with_the_Paleolithic_Ketogenic_Diet

A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet initiated promptly after diagnosis provides clinical remission in three patients with type 1 diabetes

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31301353/

Paleolithic ketogenic diet (PKD) in chronic diseases: Clinical and research data

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331467784_Paleolithic_ketogenic_diet_PKD_in_chronic_diseases_Clinical_and_research_data

Halted Progression of Soft Palate Cancer in a Patient Treated with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet Alone: A 20-months Follow-up

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308222208_Halted_Progression_of_Soft_Palate_Cancer_in_a_Patient_Treated_with_the_Paleolithic_Ketogenic_Diet_Alone_A_20-months_Follow-up

Treatment of Rectal Cancer with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet: A 24-months Follow-up

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319266162_Treatment_of_Rectal_Cancer_with_the_Paleolithic_Ketogenic_Diet_A_24-months_Follow-up

Treatment of High-Grade Brain Tumor Using the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet (PKD): Three Cases

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322570681_TREATMENT_OF_HIGH-GRADE_BRAIN_TUMOR_USING_THE_PALEOLITHIC_KETOGENIC_DIET_PKD_THREE_CASES

Type 1 diabetes mellitus successfully managed with the paleolithic ketogenic diet

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267810000_Type_1_diabetes_mellitus_successfully_managed_with_the_paleolithic_ketogenic_diet

CGM (Continuous Glucose Monitor)

Recent continuous glucose monitor data (Nutrisense). I referenced this during the show but did not have time to show it. Notice low glycemic variability, prompt return to baseline. No evidence of metabolic dysfunction/insulin resistance. These are with honey 2x daily. I have also experimented with occasional fruit.

Clastogenesis (Plant compounds break DNA)

Postlabeling Methods for Carcinogen-DNA Adduct Analysis

Extensive study referenced in the Ames paper below with testing of many compounds for the ability to cause DNA breaks in cell culture.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1568676/?page=1

Cytogenetic response to coffee in Chinese hamster ovary AUXB1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes

Coffee extract caused DNA breaks in cell culture

https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.860.507&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Dietary Pesticides (99.99% all natural)*

Bruce Ames’ paper describing the pervasive nature of plant pesticides with multiple examples.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC54831/?page=1

Evolution

With the change in the human diet from Australopithecus to Homo genera the size of our large intestines declined while our brain grew, allowing a change in the rib angle. This energetic trade off has been referred to as the Expensive Tissue Hypothesis.

Evidence for dietary change but not landscape use in South African early hominins.

Extinct species of hominids (Parathropus) was primarily a plant eater vs mainly meat eating homo species

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11349

Discussed this graphic during the podcast. The striking rise in hominid brain size correlates with the advent of hunting technology (Acheulean tools, mass animal graves, cut marks on bones/butchering, evidence for hunting injuries on bones).

In the podcast we also discussed "The Stoned Ape Theory" from Terrance McKenna, which may have also contributed though this is difficult to corroborate from the available evidence.

The expensive-tissue hypothesis: the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution

Aiello’s paper on the energetic trade off between a shrinking large bowel (allowed due to increased nutrient density of animal foods) with a growing brain

http://radicalanthropologygroup.org/sites/default/files/pdf/class_text_019.pdf

Brains and guts in human evolution: The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis*

https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84551997000100023

The Critical Role Played by Animal Source Foods in Human (Homo) Evolution

Animal meat and organs provided unique nutrients which likely allowed for the growth of the human brain.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14672286/

Impact of Carnivory on Human Development and Evolution Revealed by a New Unifying Model of Weaning in Mammals

Consuming animal foods may have allowed for shorter weaning times. Yet another.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22536316/

Discussion On the Expensive- Tissue Hypothesis: Independent Support from Highly Encephalized Fish

ghly Encephalized Fish Peter’s elephant nose fish as an illustration of the Expensive Tissue Hypothesis. Largest brain per body size and smallest gut of any fish.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249179539_On_the_Expensive-Tissue_Hypothesis_Independent_Support_from_Highly_Encephalized_Fish

Tubers as Fallback Foods and Their Impact on Hadza Hunter-Gatherers

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19350623/

Evolution of early Homo: An integrated biological perspective

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/345/6192/1236828

Unique morphology of the human eye and its adaptive meaning: comparative studies on external morphology of the primate eye

The human eye is unique relative to chimpanzees/bonobos, with a light vs dark sclera. Some have hypothesized that this allowed communication between early hominids without speaking and contributed to cooperative behaviors (like hunting) vs an intrinsically competitive

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/12012997_Unique_morphology_of_the_human_eye_and_its_adaptive_meaning_Comparative_studies_on_external_morphology_of_the_primate_eye

Stable isotopes reveal patterns of diet and mobility in the last Neandertals and  rst modern humans in europe

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41033-3

Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans

Stable isotope analyses suggest Neanderthals/early Homo was primarily carnivorous, relying mostly on animal foods. See previous article referencing a previous transition of Austalopithecus to Parathropus/ Homo habilis with the former species favoring plants and going extinct.

https://www.pnas.org/content/106/38/16034

Big Brains, Meat, Tuberculosis, and the nicotinamide switches: co-evolutionary Relationships with Modern Repercussions?

Vitamin B3 (niacin/nicotinamide) abundance in meat may have been essential for the development of the human brain.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3825668/

First graphic (life timeline): On the podcast Joe and I discussed the 500 million + years of animal/plant coevolution as a reason for the appearance of plant toxins.

Animal plant warfare and secondary metabolite evolution

We also discussed the evolution of the CYP 450 monooxigenases as part of this process.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4131614/

Second graphic: The progression of pre Homo sapien species. Paranthropus is left out of this diagram

Third graphic: Co occurrence of Neanderthal/ early Homo

The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome

Evolution of a highly acidic stomach was likely an adaptation to increase meat/organ consumption, sometimes from rotting carcasses.

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134116

Throwing, the Shoulder, and Human Evolution

The hominiduniquely evolved for throwing. No other species can throw projectiles for hunting like humans.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26991561/

Fertility decreased with Increased dietary fiber

Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology

Increased fiber in women’s diets correlated with decreased rates of fertility.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2659557

The Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study: a prospective preconception cohort

Cohort of men and women, higher levels of fruit/vegetable consumption correlated with decreased fertility. Is this due to plant toxins? Associated applied pesticides or nutrient deficiencies?

https://academic.oup.com/hropen/article/2018/2/hoy001/4877108

 Fruit and vegetable intake and their pesticide residues in relation to semen quality among men from a fertility clinic

Decreased sperm counts/ semen quality in men with more fruit/vegetable consumption

https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article/30/6/1342/616110

Food intake diet and sperm characteristics in a blue zone: a Loma Linda Study

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Edmund_Ko/publication/303692674_Food_intake_diet_and_sperm_characteristics_in_the_Blue_Zones_a_Loma_Linda_Study/links/5c10a016299bf139c7523187/Food-intake-diet-and-sperm-characteristics-in-the-Blue-Zones-a-Loma-Linda-Study.pdf

Fiber

Cancer

Lack of Effect of a High-Fiber Cereal Supplement on the Recurrence of Colorectal Adenomas

High fiber cereal supplement did not change recurrence rates of pre-cancerous lesions in the GI tract. 34-36 month trial.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200004203421602

Dietary Fiber and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma in Women

Increased dietary fiber showed no protection against colorectal adenomas in women. 16 year follow-up period.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejm199901213400301

Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

Regression analysis

https://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-1-14

Lack of Effect of a Low-Fat, High-Fiber Diet on the Recurrence of Colorectal Adenomas

4 year study.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejm200004203421601

The Polyp Prevention Trial–Continued Follow-up Study: No Effect of a Low-Fat, High-Fiber, High-Fruit, and -Vegetable Diet on Adenoma Recurrence Eight Years after Randomization

https://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/16/9/1745

Constipation

Effect of dietary ber on constipation: A meta analysis

No clear evidence that fiber is helpful for many symptoms of constipation in this meta analysis.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23326148/

Effective Constipation Treatment Changes More Than Bowel Frequency: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Simply increasing stool caliber and volume is not solving constipation

Increased fiber did not improve constipation in children

http://www.jnmjournal.org/journal/view.html?doi=10.5056/jnm15171

Effectiveness of using a behavioural intervention to improve dietary fibre intakes in children with constipation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21668531/#:~:text=Results%3A%20A%20behavioural%20intervention%20method,12months%20showed%20no%20further%20increase.

Stopping or reducing dietary ber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms

Joe and I specifically discussed this striking study on the podcast.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3435786/#:~:text=CONCLUSION%3A%20Idiopathic%20constipation%20and%20its,the%20intake%20of%20dietary%20fiber.

During the podcast, Joe asked me what caused constipation. Within the medical community the answer to this question remains unknown but the data is clear that it is not a lack of fiber. My belief is that constipation is caused by an underlying dysbiosis of the GI microbiome. Understanding how to correct this is the real tricky part!

CVD

Effects of changes in fat fish and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART)

Increased fiber in the diet did not significantly improve markers of glucose tolerance in diabetc individuals.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2571009/

Diabetes

Fibre supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and improvement of glucose metabolism: the randomised controlled Optimal Fibre Trial (OptiFiT)

Increased fiber in the diet did not significantly improve markers of glucose tolerance in diabetc individuals.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323456485_Fibre_supplementation_for_the_prevention_of_type_2_diabetes_and_improvement_of_glucose_metabolism_the_randomised_controlled_Optimal_Fibre_Trial_OptiFiT

Diverticulosis

Constipation and a Low-Fiber Diet are Not Associated with Diverticulosis

Neither of these are associated with diverticulosis.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840096/#:~:text=Classic%20symptoms%20of%20constipation%2C%20i.e.,dietary%20fiber%20intake%20and%20diverticulosis.

Dietary  ber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950569/

A High-Fiber Diet Does Not Protect Against Asymptomatic Diverticulosis

Colonoscopy based study over 12 years. Higher intake of fiber was associated with an increased risk of diverticulosis.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724216/#:~:text=In%20this%20colonoscopy%2Dbased%20study,cases%20with%20%E2%89%A53%20diverticula.

A systematic review of high-fibre dietary therapy in diverticular disease

No clear evidence that fiber helps with diverticular disease.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3308000/

A Hypothesis: Is Diverticulitis a Type of Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16885694/

Hormonal Irregularities

Lower serum oestrogen concentrations associated with faster intestinal transit

Higher fiber intake associated with hormonal irregularities (lower estrogen levels in women).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2224051/

High-fiber diet reduces serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal women

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1652197/

Effect of daily fiber intake on reproductive function: the BioCycle Study

In ovulating women, increased fiber consumption was associated with an increased rate of anovulation (menstrual irregularities).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2744625/

Hunger/Weight Loss

Fermentable and Nonfermentable Fiber Supplements Did Not Alter Hunger, Satiety or Body Weight in a Pilot Study of Men and Women Consuming Self-Selected Diets

Increased fiber intake did not improve hunger ratings.

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/133/10/3141/4687492

Microbial Diversity

Joe and I did not discuss this on the show but it’s such a common critique of low fiber diets I wanted to address it. Also see my lab data above which shows a high microbial diversity, with low inflammation on my fiber free diet for the last 2+ years. Notably, my fruit intake is marginal, and does not contribute significantly to fiber intake.

Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

Removing fiber on a carnivore diet (poorly constructed) did not decrease alpha diversity. Similarly, adding fiber to the diet does not increase alpha diversity.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24336217/

Seasonal cycling in the gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania

In seasons where more meat is eaten, the phyla proteobacteria increases without any evidence for inflammatory bowel disease in this hunter-gatherer population.

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6353/802

Gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers

The Hadza do not possess bifidobacteria. We cannot say that we know what a “healthy” microbiome is.

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms4654

Enterocyte-Associated Microbiome of the Hadza Hunter-Gatherers

The Hadza are free from inflammatory bowel disease and do not have a “healthy” microbiome according to westernized standards. Our concepts here are limited.

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00865/full

Reduced Mass and Diversity of the Colonic Microbiome in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Improvement with Ketogenic Diet

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01141/full

Nutrient Deficiencies

Dietary Fiber Intake Increases the Risk of Zinc Deficiency in Healthy and Diabetic Women

Increased fiber intake led to a higher risk of nutrient deficiency in women

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22528778/#:~:text=Healthy%20and%20diabetic%20women%20consume,the%20risk%20of%20zinc%20deficiency.

SCFA

Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: A comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22287677/

Short-Term, Intermittent Fasting Induces Long- Lasting Gut Health and TOR-Independent Lifespan Extension

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325213527_Short-Term_Intermittent_Fasting_Induces_Long-Lasting_Gut_Health_and_TOR-Independent_Lifespan_Extension

Restructuring of the Gut Microbiome by Intermittent Fasting Prevents Retinopathy and Prolongs Survival in db/db Mice

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324853378_Restructuring_of_the_Gut_Microbiome_by_Intermittent_Fasting_Prevents_Retinopathy_and_Prolongs_Survival_in_dbdb_Mice

Game Changers

There is an entire article and podcast in response to the previous episode of JRE with James Wilks and Chris Kresser. Many of James’ claims were incorrect.

Dr. Walter Willett: Numerous Potential Conflicts of Interest

Prominent nutrition researcher at Harvard with many conflicts of interest and payments from plant based groups

https://www.fabresearch.org/viewItem.php?id=12377#:~:text=Summary%3A%20Coalition%20of%20scientists%20claim,is%20preferable%20for%20good%20health%22.

Vitamin B-12: plant sources, requirements, and assay

James references this article in the previous podcast. The humans discussed within getting B12 from dirt were eating “night soil,” = growing plants in manure made from human feces.

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/48/3/852/4716470?redirectedFrom=PDF

MONTHLY SURVEY OF VITAMIN B,, CONCENTRATIONS IN SOME WATERS OF THE ENGLISH LAKE DISTRICT

Article cited by James Wilks. Doing the math suggests one would need to drink massive amounts of water from these English lakes to meet the lower end of the RDA for B12.

https://aslopubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.4319/lo.1969.14.2.0224

We discussed this NYT article on the podcast. Over the last 70 years many corporate interests have corruptly tried to vilify animal fat while removing the blame from processed sugar.

Historical

Joe and I did not discuss these articles, but they are historical reports of the year long observation of Vilhjalmur Steffanson at Bellevue hospital while eating a carnivore diet.

PROLONGED MEAT DIETS WITH A STUDY OF KIDNEY FUNCTION AND KETOSIS.*

No evidence of harm (blood pressure, kidney function, mood, weight) after 1 year on a nose to tail carnivore diet observed by doctors at Bellevue hospital in NYC.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524027/

THE EFFECTS OF AN EXCLUSIVE, LONG-CONTINUED MEAT DIET

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/241588

Honey

Joe and I discussed honey for a good amount of time. I include it in my diet and have benefits with this over the last few months. For the first 1.5 years of a carnivore diet I ate exclusively animal organs, meat, bone broth.

Honey, Hadza, hunter-gatherers, and human evolution

Hadza consume a large amount of calories from honey and this food is felt to have been a part of the hominid diet for millions of years.

http://www.brianwoodresearch.com/papers/Marlowe%20et%20al%202014%20Honey,%20Hadza,%20hunter-gatherers,%20and%20human%20evolution%20--%20Journal%20of%20Human%20Evolution.pdf

Antibacterial Activity of Honey on Cariogenic Bacteria

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3666059/

Effect of Ethiopian multiflora honey on fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patients

https://blog.daveasprey.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/4-Effect-of-Ethiopian-multiflora-honey-on-fluconazole-resistant-Candida-species-isolated-from-the-oral-cavity-of-AIDS-patients.pdf

Effect of honey in preventing gingivitis and dental caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4095052/#:~:text=Within%20the%20limitations%20of%20the,in%20patients%20undergoing%20orthodontic%20treatment.

Substituting Honey for Refined Carbohydrates Protects Rats from Hypertriglyceridemic and Prooxidative Effects of Fructose

In a rat model, honey has different effects vs fructose. We discussed this study during the podcast.

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/132/11/3379/4687329

Hormesis Redux

During the podcast I discuss my views on molecular hormesis(xenohormesis) vs environmental hormesis and the absence of convincing evidence the former has a net benefit in humans. I believe that plant molecules are net negative as the “benefits” are redundant and van be achieved through environmental hormesis (fasting, cold exposure, heat, sunlight, exercise)

The Nrf2 system I described in the podcast. Triggered by many pro-oxidants like sulforaphane (see below under plant molecules), resveratrol, fasting, exercise, heat/cold, cigarettes etc.

Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort

In this cohort, higher “antioxidant” intake associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal cancer.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4643904/

Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Supplemental “antioxidants” associated with increased mortality.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/205797

Antioxidants in Food: Mere Myth or Magic Medicine?

Oxidative “stress” plays an indispensable role in the human body and should not be completely abrogated.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51780445_Antioxidants_in_Food_Mere_Myth_or_Magic_Medicine

Endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidants in the human body

Glutathione/Nrf2 triggered by smoking

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1896112617300445#:~:text=Endogenous%20antioxidants%2C%20which%20are%20products,be%20enzymatic%20or%20non%2Denzymatic.&text=The%20second%20line%20of%20defence,rapidly%20inactivate%20radicals%20and%20oxidants.

Lung glutathione adaptive responses to cigarette smoke exposure

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1465-9921-12-133

 URIC ACID AND GLUTATHIONE LEVELS DURING SHORT-TERM WHOLE BODY COLD EXPOSURE

Cold water exposure led to increased glutathione- this is environmental hormesis!

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0891584994900302

The glutathione system. Part of our endogenous redox management.

Kidney

Comparative Effects of Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein Versus Low-Fat Diets on the Kidney

High protein diets did not negatively affect kidney function.

https://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/7/7/1103.short

Changes in Kidney Function Do Not Differ between Healthy Adults Consuming Higher- Compared with Lower- or Normal-Protein Diets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/148/11/1760/5153345

Lipids/Cardiovascular disease

We discussed these graphics from my book in detail in the podcast. You can see that when stratified by HDL (a proxy for metabolic health) the relationship between LDL and cardiovascular disease is clearly less strong, or essentially zero.

Look under the Bloodwork section for my lipids/CAC (coronary artery calcium) score, lipid numbers, etc. Remember from the podcast that I do not have Familial Hypercholesterolemia, but my father had early CAD. By most estimates, I should have calcified plaque in the arteries, yet I do not. I am planning to get a CTA (CT coronary angiogram) in the near future.

Low Triglycerides–High High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

Low risk of cardiovascular disease in those with “elevated LDL” but low triglycerides/HDL- a proxy for metabolic health.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11176761/

Changes in Dietary Fat Intake Alter Plasma Levels of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein(a) Increased polyunsaturated fat, lower saturated fat intake leads to higher levels of oxidized LDL, Lp(a), a marker for lipoprotein oxidation. This is in the setting of lower LDL

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.atv.0000118012.64932.f4

Food consumption and the actual statistics of cardiovascular diseases: an epidemiological comparison of 42 European countries

No association between cardiovascular disease and saturated fat in this epi study.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/fnr.v60.31694

Atherosclerosis in the masai

The Maasai do not possess obstructive coronary disease. Studies of this population are difficult as well because once males attain the age of 40 they are no longer part of the “warrior class” and often begin to eat a westernized diet.

https://academic.oup.com/aje/article-abstract/95/1/26/167903

Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) Seem Resistant to Atherosclerosis Despite Highly Elevated Plasma Lipids during Hibernation and Active State

During hibernation (mimics fasting) brown bears have increased levels of LDL but no evidence of atherosclerosis.

https://ascpt.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1752-8062.2011.00370.x

Changes in Dietary Fat Intake Alter Plasma Levels of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein(a)

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.atv.0000118012.64932.f4

Fasting Increases Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B in Healthy, Nonobese Humans1

We discussed this data in the podcast.

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/129/11/2005/4721856

Measurement of Very Low Density and Low Density Lipoprotein Apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 and High Density Lipoprotein Apo A-I Production in Human Subjects Using Deuterated Leucine Effect of Fasting and Feeding

More evidence LDL increases with fasting. Would this be killing us? I think not.

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/114507

Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-deficient Mice Are Protected Against Lethal Endotoxemia and Severe Gram-negative Infections

I mentioned this study in the podcast. Increased levels of LDL in LDL-/- mice provide protection against bacterial infections. LDL has an immune role.

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/118556

 Strong increase in hydroxy fatty acids derived from linoleic acid in human low density lipoproteins of atherosclerotic patients

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0009308497000959

Multifaceted roles for lipids in viral infection

Lipoproteins play a role in viral infection.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0966842X11000576

Prognostic value of cardiovascular disease status: the Leiden 85-plus study

Higher levels of LDL associated with more longevity in this cohort.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11357-012-9443-5

The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: a study to examine influences on cognitive ageing from age 11 to age 70 and beyond

Improved cognitive functioning in old age in those with higher levels of LDL.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1471-2318-7-28

Cholesterol reduction and non-illness mortality: meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials

Trend toward increased violent deaths and suicide in trials with non-statin drugs and cholesterol lowering dietary interventions (devoid of important saturated fats from animal foods).

https://www.bmj.com/content/322/7277/11.full

Total cholesterol and risk of mortality in the oldest old

In those >85 higher levels of total cholesterol associated with longevity.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0140673697044309

Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials1

No evidence of improvement in atherosclerosis progression with vitamin-mineral supplementation.

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/84/4/880/4633216

Longevity/Blue Zones

This did not come up in the podcast but I get asked about it incessantly so I included the data calling into question the concept of “Blue Zones” being related to dietary patterns, or that plant based diets result in longer lifespan/healthspan

 Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies

In this large pooled Asian cohort (300,000 men and women), increased red meat was associated with lower cardiovascular disease in men, and lower rates opf breast cancer in women.

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/98/4/1032/4577055

Supercentenarians and the oldest-old are concentrated into regions with no birth certificates and short lifespans

Regions with no birth certificates are common among “Blue Zones,” calling into question the accuracy of age measurements.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/704080v1.full?source=post_page-----c2de53c9d13c----------------------

The actions of exogenous leucine on mTOR signalling and amino acid transporters in human myotubes

Both insulin and leucine trigger mTOR, as does exercise.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1472-6793-11-10

Food intake diet and sperm characteristics in a blue zone: a Loma Linda Study

In this “Blue Zone” decreased sperm counts and motility in males eating the most vegetables. Sound like a Blue Zone to you?

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0301211516302615

Male longevity in Sardinia, a review of historical sources supporting a causal link with dietary factors

https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2014230

Lifestyle and reduced mortality among active California Mormons, 1980–2004

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091743507003258

mTOR and the health benefits of exercise

Exercise triggers mTOR. Don’t fear it!

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1084952114002535

NUTRITION FOR THE JAPANESE ELDERLY

Okinawans eat more than other Japanese, no centenarians found among vegetarians.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/026010609200800312

Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom

Apparent benefits of a vegetarian diet are due to healthy behaviors rather than diet. This is the “healthy user bias.”

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/103/1/218/4569305

The relationship between peripheral blood mononuclear cells telomere length and diet - unexpected effect of red meat

Red meat consumption associated with longer telomeres.

https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-016-0189-2

Physical Activity and Nutrition: Two Promising Strategies for Telomere Maintenance?

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/12/1942

Mortality in British vegetarians

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/public-health-nutrition/article/mortality-in-british-vegetarians/F60895E8534D962978300E96B2E436F7

Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up Study

No difference between all-cause mortality vegetarians vs omnivores.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091743516304479

Meat/Cancer

Meta-analysis of animal fat or animal protein intake and colorectal cancer

Available evidence does not support a link between animal fat or meat consumption and colorectal cancer.

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/89/5/1402/4596836

 Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/98/4/1032/4577055

 Effect of Meat (Beef, Chicken, and Bacon) on Rat Colon Carcinogenesis

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635589809514736

Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford)

Colorectal cancer rates higher in vegetarians vs meat eaters.

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/89/5/1620S/4596951

Heme Iron from Meat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis and a Review of the Mechanisms Involved

Purported mechanisms regarding red meat and colorectal cancer do not stand up to investigation.

https://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/4/2/177.short

Possible Protective Effect of Milk, Meat and Fish for Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality in Japan

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jea1991/9/4/9_4_268/_article/-char/ja/

What is the role of meat in a healthy diet?

https://academic.oup.com/af/article/8/3/5/5048762

Effect of Dietary Unsaturated and Saturated Fats on Azoxymethane- induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats

Saturated fat is protective vs unsaturated fat in rat models.

https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/44/4/1472.short

Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results

“...There is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk.”

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1535370217693117

Red meat and colon cancer: A review of mechanistic evidence for heme in T the context of risk assessment methodology

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691518302655

 Dietary Risk Factors for Colon Cancer in a Low-risk Population

https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/148/8/761/69260

Unprocessed Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption: Dietary Guideline Recommendations From the NutriRECS Consortium

https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/full/10.7326/M19-1621

Potential effects of reduced red meat compared with increased  ber intake on glucose metabolism and liver fat content: a randomized and controlled dietary intervention study

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/2/288/5307117

 Beef Tallow Increases Apoptosis and Decreases Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation Relative to Soybean Oil in Rat Colon

Beef fat (tallow, this is in Firestarter) protected, again, colon cancer lesions in a rat model.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327914nc5001_8

Metabolic Health

This concept came up in depth during the podcast and we discussed the strong amount of evidence for the damaging effects of excess polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, like linoleic acid) in the human diet.

This concept came up in depth during the podcast and we discussed the strong amount of evidence for the damaging effects of excess polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, like linoleic acid) in the human diet.

Role of Physiological Levels of 4-Hydroxynonenal on Adipocyte Biology: Implications for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

4HNE is a breakdown product of linoleic acid, and appears to impair adipogenesis, leading instead to adipocyte hypertrophy. This appears to lie at the root of metabolic dysfunction. I discuss this in greater detail in this podcast.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4038367/

Elevated Serum C-Reactive Protein and Free Fatty Acids Among Nondiabetic Carriers of Missense Mutations in the Gene Encoding Lamin A/C (LMNA) With Partial Lipodystrophy

Monogenic insulin resistance associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and increased serum free fatty acids.

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.atv.0000047460.27435.b8

 Fat cell enlargement is an independent marker of insulin resistance and ‘hyperleptinaemia’

Fat cell enlargement appears to be triggered by excess polyunsaturated fats.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-006-0572-1

Premature Atherosclerosis Associated With Monogenic Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance leads to atherosclerosis in the absence of “elevated LDL”.

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.CIR.103.18.2225

Insulin resistance and impaired adipogenesis

http://pages.ucsd.edu/~mboyle/COGS163/pdf-files/Insulin%20resistance%20and%20impaired%20adipogenesis-Review-2015.pdf

Insulin Resistance Predicts Severity of Coronary Atherosclerotic Disease in Non-Diabetic Patients

https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/7/2144/pdf

Relationship between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and insulin resistance in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

https://bmcendocrdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12902-015-0002-9

Microbiome/GI

Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12820?refcode=fitness

Seasonal cycling in the gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6353/802.abstract

Gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms4654

Enterocyte-Associated Microbiome of the Hadza Hunter-Gatherers

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00865/full

Short-Term, Intermittent Fasting Induces Long- Lasting Gut Health and TOR-Independent Lifespan Extension

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982218304433

Restructuring of the Gut Microbiome by Intermittent Fasting Prevents Retinopathy and Prolongs Survival in db/db Mice

https://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/67/9/1867?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Diabetes_TrendMD_0

Fish Oil Attenuates Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid- Induced Dysbiosis and Infectious Colitis but Impairs LPS Dephosphorylation Activity Causing Sepsis

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055468

A high linoleic acid diet exacerbates metabolic responses and gut microbiota dysbiosis in obese rats with diabetes mellitus

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/fo/c8fo02423e/unauth#!divAbstract

Bioavailability enhancing activities of natural compounds from medicinal plants

https://academicjournals.org/journal/JMPR/article-abstract/7C17FB615692

Hot Spices Influence Permeability of Human Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/128/3/577/4728865

Skin Exposure to Narrow Band Ultraviolet (UVB) Light Modulates the Human Intestinal Microbiome

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02410/full

Tight Junctions affected negatively by plant compounds

Modulation of tight junction integrity by food components

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0963996912005613

The Type of Dietary Fat Modulates Intestinal Tight Junction Integrity, Gut Permeability, and Hepatic Toll-Like Receptor Expression in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease

Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) appear more damaging to the gut than saturated fats.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01673.x

Modulation of Gastrointestinal Barrier and Nutrient Transport Function in Farm Animals by Natural Plant Bioactive Compounds – A Comprehensive Review

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2018.1486284

Bioavailability enhancing activities of natural compounds from medicinal plants

Plant compounds open tight junctions in the gut.

https://academicjournals.org/journal/JMPR/article-abstract/7C17FB615692

 Regulation of Tight Junction Permeability by Intestinal Bacteria and Dietary Components

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/141/5/769/4600243

Nose to Tail

Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults

Carnosine improved memory in elderly adults

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00219/abstract

Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/94/3/847/4431102

Glycine supplementation extends lifespan of male and female mice

Glycine, amino acid found in collagen (think connective tissue) improves lifespan in mice

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/acel.12953

A weak link in metabolism: the metabolic capacity for glycine biosynthesis does not satisfy the need for collagen synthesis

Most of us don’t get enough glcyine

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12038-009-0100-9

Effect of Dietary Unsaturated and Saturated Fats on Azoxymethane- induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats

https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/44/4/1472.short

Fatty Acid Composition of Beef Intermuscular, Sheep Tail, Beef Kidney Fats and Its Effects on Shelf Life and Quality Properties of Kavurma

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/24236559_Fatty_Acid_Composition_of_Beef_Intermuscular_Sheep_Tail_Beef_Kidney_Fats_and_Its_Effects_on_Shelf_Life_and_Quality_Properties_of_Kavurma

 Beef Tallow Increases Apoptosis and Decreases Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation Relative to Soybean Oil in Rat Colon

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327914nc5001_8

Nutrients in Animal food vs plant food

Bioavailability of Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Subjects after Ingestion of Three Different Forms of Flaxseed

ALA from flax is poorly bioavailable.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07315724.2008.10719693

A review of current evidence for acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of depression

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022395614000454

Acetyl-L-carnitine deficiency in patients with major depressive disorder

https://www.pnas.org/content/115/34/8627.short

Impact of Antinutritional Factors in Food Proteins on the Digestibility of Protein and the Bioavailability of Amino Acids and on Protein Quality

Antinutrients in plants decrease bioavailability

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/impact-of-antinutritional-factors-in-food-proteins-on-the-digestibility-of-protein-and-the-bioavailability-of-amino-acids-and-on-protein-quality/052B66B8F1BA8DBBCEE94E3607A63402

Bioavailability of vitamin b-6 from plant foods

B-6 less bioavailable from plant foods

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/48/3/863/4716385

Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly

Lower B12 levels correlate with smaller brains.

https://n.neurology.org/content/71/11/826.short

 Naturally Occurring Eccentric Cleavage Products of Provitamin A  -Carotene Function as Antagonists of Retinoic Acid Receptors

Beta-carotene breakdown products may antagonize retinoic acid receptors.

https://www.jbc.org/content/287/19/15886.short

Bioconversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A in humans

Humans are bad at converting beta-carotene into retinoic acid- the usable form of this vitamin

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/91/5/1468S/4597430

Systemic carnitine deficiency exacerbated by a strict vegan diet

https://adc.bmj.com/content/59/2/177.short

Vegetarians have a reduced skeletal muscle carnitine transport capacity

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/94/3/938/4411875

Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults

Nutrients found in significant amounts only in meat improve cognitive performance

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00219/full

Carnosine As a Natural Antioxidant and Geroprotector: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Trials

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/rej.2009.0923

Carnosine and its constituents inhibit glycation of low-density lipoproteins that promotes foam cell formation in vitro

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014579307001305

L-Carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006291X04021709

Potential for use of creatine supplementation following mild traumatic brain injury

https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/full/10.2217/cnc-2016-0016

Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Caroline_Rae/publication/9049698_Oral_creatine_monohydrate_supplementation_improves_brain_performance_A_double-blind_placebo-controlled_cross-over_trial/links/0912f5069887c472c1000000.pdf

The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores

Spoke about this study with Joe. Supplementation with creatine leads to improved cognitive performance in those who are deficient- vegetarians.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/influence-of-creatine-supplementation-on-the-cognitive-functioning-of-vegetarians-and-omnivores/E2D37729902DDFA6CFC85767AD0421FC

Effect of Creatine and Weight Training on Muscle Creatine and Performance in Vegetarians

Creatine (found in meat, not in plants) improves performance.

https://europepmc.org/article/med/14600563?dom=translatable&src=syn

Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications

Difficult for vegetarians to obtain optimal essential fatty acid status

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/78/3/640S/4690006

Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford

Vegetarians break more bones

https://www.nature.com/articles/1602659/

Homocysteine Levels in Vegetarians versus Omnivores

HCY (homocysteine) levels are higher in vegetarians suggesting inadequate B-vitamin (riboflavin, folate). HCY levels also high in those not eating liver in my personal experience.

https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/12827

Iodine Deficiency in Vegetarians and Vegans

Common

https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/70483

Iron status among Australian adults: findings of a population based study in Queensland, Australia

Vegetarians had lower iron levels

http://211.76.170.15/server/APJCN/17/1/40.pdf

Relationship between iron status and dietary fruit and vegetables based on their vitamin C and fiber content

More fiber, less iron

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/87/5/1298/4650718

A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939475308002093

High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification

Menaquinone=K2, natto does not contain MK-4

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0021915008005078

Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study

K2 (found mostly in animal foods) is associated with improved outcomes

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/134/11/3100/4688389

Nutritional composition of red meat

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00197.x

Fractional magnesium absorption is significantly lower in human subjects from a meal served with an oxalate-rich vegetable, spinach, as compared with a meal served with kale, a vegetable with a low oxalate content

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/fractional-magnesium-absorption-is-significantly-lower-in-human-subjects-from-a-meal-served-with-an-oxalaterich-vegetable-spinach-as-compared-with-a-meal-served-with-kale-a-vegetable-with-a-low-oxalate-content/D44B642494EA1D2F55852C8D92A9F602

Concentrations in beef and lamb of taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q10, and creatine

Key nutrients found only in animal foods in significant amounts.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0309174003001815

 Selenium Status, Plasma Zinc, Copper, and Magnesium in Vegetarians

Minerals lower in vegetarians

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02789145

Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in man

Oxalic acid and phytates impair zinc bioavailability

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/32/12/2495/4692530

Zinc and Selenium Nutritional Status in Vegetarians

Lower than meat eaters, any surprise here? Nope.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12011-008-8245-1

Plant Molecules

Animal plant warfare and secondary metabolite evolution

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s13659-013-0004-0.pdf

Cyanogenic glycosides

Acute health risks related to consumption of raw apricot kernels and products thereof

https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4424

Isothiocyanates

Benefits and Risks of the Hormetic Effects of Dietary Isothiocyanates on Cancer Prevention

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0114764

Genotoxicity studies of organically grown broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its interactions with urethane, methyl methanesulfonate and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide genotoxicity in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0278691509004359

Effects of Brassica vegetable juice on the induction of apoptosis and aberrant crypt foci in rat colonic mucosal crypts in vivo

https://academic.oup.com/carcin/article/24/3/491/2608432

Lower serum levels of selenium, copper, and zinc are related to neuromotor impairments in children with konzo

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022510X15000088

 Cruciferous vegetables and colo-rectal cancer

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society/article/cruciferous-vegetables-and-colorectal-cancer/9DA884407F6DE1397DCE80C13CDA06C7

Estrogenic Effects of Extracts from Cabbage, Fermented Cabbage, and Acidified Brussels Sprouts on Growth and Gene Expression of Estrogen-Dependent Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Cells

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf000164z

 Detection of genotoxicants in Brassicales using endogenous DNA as a surrogate target and adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling as an experimental end point

https://academic.oup.com/mutage/article/26/3/407/1040105

 Genotoxic effects of crude juices from Brassica vegetables and juices and extracts from phytopharmaceutical preparations and spices of cruciferous plants origin in bacterial and mammalian cells

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0009279796037283

Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism

I discussed in the podcast how isothiocyanates may impair proper incorporation of iodine into the thyroid gland.

https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article/74/4/248/1807251

Linamarin: The toxic compound of Cassava

Linamarin is another toxic compound found in cassava which makes hydrocyanic when chewed (combines with linamarase).

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/250031111_Linamarin_The_toxic_compound_of_Cassava

Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X1730159X

Sulforaphane Induces Oxidative Stress and Death by p53-Independent Mechanism: Implication of Impaired Glutathione Recycling

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092980

Role of Lipid Peroxidation in Cellular Responses to D, L- Sulforaphane, A Promising Cancer Chemopreventive Agent†

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bi100104e

Various Possible Toxicants Involved in Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review

In a Danish cohort, those with truncal vs superselective vagotomy had lower rates of Parkinson’s disease.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740614/

Lectins

Dietary Antigens and primary immunoglobulin a Nephropathy

https://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/jnephrol/2/10/S173.full.pdf

Early effects of gliadin on enterocyte intracellular signalling involved in intestinal barrier function

WGA damages GI epithelium

https://gut.bmj.com/content/gutjnl/52/2/218.full.pdf

 In vitro cytotoxic effect of wheat gliadin-derived peptides on the Caco-2 intestinal cell line is associated with intracellular oxidative imbalance: implications for coeliac disease

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925443998000957

Gluten and IgA nephropathy: you are what you eat?

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2157171615321717

Gram-positive bacteria are held at a distance in the colon mucus by the lectin-like protein ZG16

https://www.pnas.org/content/113/48/13833.short

Lectin Ingestion

https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1385/0-89603-396-1:495

Nutritional Significance of Lectins and Enzyme Inhibitors from Legumes

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf020191k#

Dietary lectins can induce in vitro release of IL-4 and IL-13 from human basophils

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199903)29:03%3C918::AID-IMMU918%3E3.0.CO;2-T

Lectins in the United States diet: a survey of lectins in commonly consumed foods and a review of the literature

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/33/11/2338/4692501

Bacteria-lectin interactions in phytohemagglutinin-induced bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine

https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/abs/10.1139/m88-176

Dietary Plant Lectins Appear to Be Transported from the Gut to Gain Access to and Alter Dopaminergic Neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans, a Potential Etiology of Parkinson’s Disease

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2016.00007/full

Colonic Microbiota Encroachment Correlates With Dysglycemia in Humans

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352345X17300759

Identification of intact peanut lectin in peripheral venous blood

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lu-Gang_Yu/publication/13437161_Identification_of_intact_peanut_lectin_in_peripheral_venous_blood/links/5e46d668458515072d9db1cd/Identification-of-intact-peanut-lectin-in-peripheral-venous-blood.pdf

Peanut Ingestion Increases Rectal Proliferation in Individuals With Mucosal Expression of Peanut Lectin Receptor

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0016508598706316

Potato lectin activates basophils and mast cells of atopic subjects by its interaction with core chitobiose of cell-bound non-specific immunoglobulin E

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03368.x

Ingestion of subthreshold doses of environmental toxins induces ascending Parkinsonism in the rat

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41531-018-0066-0

Red kidney bean poisoning in the UK: an analysis of 50 suspected incidents between 1976 and 1989

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2271815/pdf/epidinfect00024-0031.pdf

Inhibition by Ricin of Protein Synthesis in vitro: 60S Ribosomal Subunit astheTargetoftheToxin

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1166019/pdf/biochemj00593-0367.pdf

 Small Intestinal Growth Caused by Feeding Red Kidney Bean Phytohemagglutinin Lectin to Rats

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/001650859390644R

Vagotomy and Subsequent Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ana.24448

Effects of wheat germ agglutinin on human gastrointestinal epithelium: Insights from an experimental model of immune/epithelial cell interaction

https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/49157370/Effects_of_wheat_germ_agglutinin_on_huma20160927-22390-yf6fhc.pdf?1474990245=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DEffects_of_wheat_germ_agglutinin_on_huma.pdf&Expires=1602367725&Signature=GSbCmC36QDpL4kE5JZE4Xsay5lUzdD5lXtfaGuXvtcqnDZNdfWah1bdnfXxvcw9GPc-9dv9r2Gma9t0Szw4RKKQmflX9a3P~yzJcLLx93yhylWzV7uUNGSo9vMyDzYmGIXNIKI1XejLkuVdCn05sXVqijvxgd6cRjWvNd9Jw5kJVgF2M-MSrI7lJJ4gq9R0q5jUqHbAVsb92gMYBcud2tOqGE93jWXxhYpFxKfpoV7twHTn579i1vjp-WNYNybvCZVnMwZZF8sn8J5ObeaqIoLSsn38w2txX3xKTpHMq1P9qnIywBn-~YNC9bpIPIq6GC2hW796Y5rlQrpfXwcRUMg__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA

Oxalates

We didn’t talk about Oxalates on the podcast, but I’ve shared some interesting research on these compounds, below.

Effect of cinnamon and turmeric on urinary oxalate excretion, plasma lipids, and plasma glucose in healthy subjects

Turmeric significantly increased oxalate excretion

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/87/5/1262/4650348

Death from consumption of Rhubarb leaves:

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/221914

“Green Smoothie Cleanse” Causing Acute Oxalate Nephropathy

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272638617308636

Oxalate in the Human Thyroid Gland

https://edoc.hu-berlin.de/bitstream/handle/18452/11482/416.pdf?sequence=1

Hyperoxaluria leads to dysbiosis and drives selective enrichment of oxalate metabolizing bacterial species in recurrent kidney stone endures

https://www.nature.com/articles/srep34712

Medicago truncatula Mutants Demonstrate the Role of Plant Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Effective Defense against Chewing Insects

http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/plantphysiol/141/1/188.full.pdf

Fractional magnesium absorption is significantly lower in human subjects from a meal served with an oxalate-rich vegetable, spinach, as compared with a meal served with kale, a vegetable with a low oxalate content

https://doc.rero.ch/record/294410/files/S0007114504000753.pdf

Calcium Oxalate Crystals in the Thyroid

https://academic.oup.com/ajcp/article-abstract/87/4/443/1772125

Oxalate induces breast cancer

https://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-015-1747-2

Calcium oxalate crystals in the breast

https://europepmc.org/article/med/2031531

Oxalate, inflammasome, and progression of kidney disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891250/

Hyperoxaluria and Genitourinary Disorders in Children Ingesting Almond Milk Products

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022347615008926

Oxalic acid/oxalates in plants: from  self-defence to phytoremediation

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317237827_Oxalic_AcidOxalates_in_PlantsFrom_Self-Defence_to_Phytoremediation

Hypothyroidism in primary hyperoxaluria type 1

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022347600701120

Severe Periodontitis in a Patient With Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis. A Case Report and Review of the Literature

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20528695/

Bioavailability enhancing activities of natural compounds from medicinal plants

https://academicjournals.org/journal/JMPR/article-full-text-pdf/7C17FB615692.pdf

Polyphenols

Coevolution of Poisonous Plants and Large Herbivores on Rangelands

https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/jrm/article/viewFile/6858/6468

Curcumin

The dark side of curcumin

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.625.4307&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The effects of turmeric (curcumin) on tumor suppressor protein (p53) and estrogen receptor (ERα) in breast cancer cells

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354546/

Curcumin: A Review of Its’ Effects on Human Health

https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/6/10/92/pdf

The Essential Medicinal Chemistry of Curcumin

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00975

Thioredoxin Reductase Is Irreversibly Modified by Curcumin

https://www.jbc.org/content/280/26/25284.full.pdf

Others

Flavonoid Apigenin Is an Inhibitor of the NAD+ase CD38

https://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/diabetes/62/4/1084.full.pdf

Catechin induced modulation in the activities of thyroid hormone synthesizing enzymes leading to hypothyroidism

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11010-012-1503-8

Low doses of widely consumed cannabinoids (cannabidiol and cannabidivarin) cause DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human-derived cells

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00204-018-2322-9

Estrogenic Effects of Extracts from Cabbage, Fermented Cabbage, and Acidified Brussels Sprouts on Growth and Gene Expression of Estrogen-Dependent Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Cells

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf000164z

 Commonly Occurring Plant Flavonoids Have Estrogenic Activity

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Richard_Miksicek/publication/14858578_Commonly_occurring_plant_flavonoids_have_estrogenic_activity/links/00463519d2f75e488d000000.pdf

Flavonoid Inhibition of Sodium-dependent Vitamin C Transporter 1 (SVCT1) and Glucose Transporter Isoform 2 (GLUT2), Intestinal Transporters for Vitamin C and Glucose

https://www.jbc.org/content/277/18/15252.full.pdf

Goitrogenic/antithyroidal potential of green tea extract in relation to catechin in rats

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0278691510003431

Dietary isoflavone intake is associated with evoked responses to inflammatory cardiometabolic stimuli and improved glucose homeostasis in healthy volunteers

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939475314001306

Phytochemicals Inhibit Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity in Cytosolic Fractions from Healthy Human Mammary Tissues: Implications for Catechol Estrogen-Induced DNA Damage

https://academic.oup.com/toxsci/article/81/2/316/1656122

Risks and safety of polyphenol consumption

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/81/1/326S/4607649

Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic

https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article/23/11/2584/2913898

THE INHIBITION OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES BY POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-0022-0_29

Resveratrol

Resveratrol, an Nrf2 activator, ameliorates aging‐related progressive renal injury

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5811244/

Resveratrol Levels and All-Cause Mortality in Older Community-Dwelling Adults

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/1868537

Resveratrol: A Double-Edged Sword in Health Benefits

https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/6/3/91/pdf

Resveratrol Reduces the Levels of Circulating Androgen Precursors But Has No Effect on, Testosterone, Dihydrotestosterone, PSA Levels or Prostate Volume. A 4-Month Randomized Trial in Middle-Aged Men

https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/ResveratrolHormones.pdf

No Beneficial Effects of Resveratrol on the Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/102/5/1642/2979193

Placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial: high- dose resveratrol treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/ResveratrolNAFLD.pdf

Prooxidant activity of resveratrol in the presence of copper ions: Mutagenicity in plasmid DNA

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378427405001190

Hot Spices Influence Permeability of Human Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers

Hot spices open tight junctions in the GI epithelium.

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/128/3/577/4728865

Psoralens

epidemiology of diet and melanoma

https://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/cebp/27/10/1115.full.pdf

Citrus Consumption and Risk of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4979231/

Natural Toxicants in Human Foods: Psoralens in Raw and Cooked Parsnip Root

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/213/4510/909.abstract

POPs

Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs

https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/107/10/4612.full.pdf

PUFAs (Polyunsaturated fatty acids)

Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and oxidatively modified peroxiredoxins in the blood of Alzheimer’s disease patients and their potential as biomarkers

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17688973/

Changes in Dietary Fat Intake Alter Plasma Levels of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein(a)

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.atv.0000118012.64932.f4

The Type of Dietary Fat Modulates Intestinal Tight Junction Integrity, Gut Permeability, and Hepatic Toll-Like Receptor Expression in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01673.x

DIETARY LINOLEIC ACID IS REQUIRED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ALCOHOLIC LIVER INJURY

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0024320589905997

Linoleic acid induces red blood cells and hemoglobin damage via oxidative mechanism

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4503070/

Dietary Lipid Profile Is a Determinant of Tissue Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Rate of Weight Gain in Rats1

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-abstract/123/3/512/4723339

A high linoleic acid diet exacerbates metabolic responses and gut microbiota dysbiosis in obese rats with diabetes mellitus

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30672576/

Dietary Linoleic Acid Elevates Endogenous 2-AG and Anandamide and Induces Obesity

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1038/oby.2012.38

 Strong increase in hydroxy fatty acids derived from linoleic acid in human low density lipoproteins of atherosclerotic patients

https://blog.daveasprey.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/11-Strong-increase-in-hydroxy-fatty-acids.pdf

Increase in Adipose Tissue Linoleic Acid of US Adults in the Last Half Century1,2

https://academic.oup.com/advances/article/6/6/660/4555155

Lipid Peroxidation During n-3 Fatty Acid and Vitamin E Supplementation in Humans

https://aocs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1007/s11745-997-0068-2

Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5792

Lowering dietary linoleic acid reduces bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in humans

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0952327812001469

The ‘Displacing Foods of Modern Commerce’ Are the Primary and Proximate Cause of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Unifying Singular Hypothesis

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306987717305017

Medicines and Vegetable Oils as Hidden Causes of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

https://www.karger.com/Article/PDF/446704

Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73)

https://www.bmj.com/content/353/bmj.i1246.full.pdf+html

Fat and essential fatty acid in mammary carcinogenesis

https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/45/5/1997.full.pdf

Effects of diets enriched in linoleic acid and its peroxidation products on brain fatty acids, oxylipins, and aldehydes in mice

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1388198118301756

Effects of Macronutrient Distribution on Weight and Related Cardiometabolic Profile in Healthy Non-Obese Chinese: A 6-month, Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trial

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352396417302529

Brief episode of STZ-induced hyperglycemia produces cardiac abnormalities in rats fed a diet rich in n-6 PUFA

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/ajpheart.00480.2004

Differential Metabolic Effects of Saturated Versus Polyunsaturated Fats in Ketogenic Diets

https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/89/4/1641/2844241

Dysregulation of Hypothalamic Gene Expression and the Oxytocinergic System by Soybean Oil Diets in Male Mice

https://www.healthyliving.gr/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Dysregulation-of-Hypothalamic-Gene-Expression-and-the-Oxytocinergic-System-by-Soybean-Oil-Diets-in-Male-Mice.pdf

Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0132672

Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis

https://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/346/bmj.e8707.full.pdf

Linoleic Acid

Strong increase in hydroxy fatty acids derived from linoleic acid in human low density lipoproteins of atherosclerotic patients

https://blog.daveasprey.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/11-Strong-increase-in-hydroxy-fatty-acids.pdf

Increase in Adipose Tissue Linoleic Acid of US Adults in the Last Half Century1,2

https://academic.oup.com/advances/article/6/6/660/4555155

Lowering dietary linoleic acid reduces bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in humans

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0952327812001469

Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73)

https://www.bmj.com/content/353/bmj.i1246.full.pdf+html

Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis

https://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/346/bmj.e8707.full.pdf

4HNE/HODEs

Effects of 4-hydroxynonenal on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell redox signaling and function in health and disease

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213231713000396

Role of Physiological Levels of 4-Hydroxynonenal on Adipocyte Biology: Implications for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10715762.2012.733003

Fat accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans triggered by the electrophilic lipid peroxidation product 4‐Hydroxynonenal (4‐HNE)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815766/

Red meat does not cause inflammation

Effects of plant and animal high protein diets on immune- inflammatory biomarkers: A 6-week intervention trial

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261561419301323

Changes in Dietary Fat Intake Alter Plasma Levels of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein(a)

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.atv.0000118012.64932.f4

 Isocaloric Diets High in Animal or Plant Protein Reduce Liver fat and Inflammation in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0016508516352295

Increased Lean Red Meat Intake Does Not Elevate Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Humans

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/137/2/363/4664544

Regenerative Agriculture

CARBON FOOTPRINT EVALUATION OF REGENERATIVE GRAZING AT WHITE OAK PASTURES

https://blog.whiteoakpastures.com/hubfs/WOP-LCA-Quantis-2019.pdf

Stearic Acid/SFA

A DIET ENRICHED IN STEARIC ACID PROTECTS AGAINST THE PROGRESSION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES IN LEPTIN RECEPTOR DEFICIENT MICE (DB/DB)

https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1002&context=physiology_etds

Effect of Dietary Unsaturated and Saturated Fats on Azoxymethane- induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats

https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/44/4/1472.short

 Dietary Stearate Reduces Human Breast Cancer Metastasis Burden in Athymic Nude Mice

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10585-009-9239-x

Dietary stearic acid regulates mitochondria in vivo in humans

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05614-6?fbclid=IwAR17XRTHYulrCpvlQ_0eo-m71Pu3I3BkPwHHSRvOiHixmf9tdH6HmvjxPDk

Dietary Stearic Acid Leads to a Reduction of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Athymic Nude Mice

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0104083

Fatty Acid Composition of Beef Intermuscular, Sheep Tail, Beef Kidney Fats and Its Effects on Shelf Life and Quality Properties of Kavurma

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/24236559_Fatty_Acid_Composition_of_Beef_Intermuscular_Sheep_Tail_Beef_Kidney_Fats_and_Its_Effects_on_Shelf_Life_and_Quality_Properties_of_Kavurma

Beef Tallow Increases Apoptosis and Decreases Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation Relative to Soybean Oil in Rat Colon

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327914nc5001_8

No benefit to increased fruit and vegetable consumption:

Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet*

https://doc.rero.ch/record/301928/files/S0007114502000673.pdf

Effect of increasing fruit and vegetable intake by dietary intervention on nutritional biomarkers and attitudes to dietary change: a randomised trial

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-017-1469-0

Dietary Pesticides (99.99% all natural)*

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC54831/?page=1

Increasing the Vegetable Intake Dose Is Associated with a Rise in Plasma Carotenoids without Modifying Oxidative Stress or Inflammation in Overweight or Obese Postmenopausal Women

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/141/10/1827/4630512

Effects of High Consumption of Vegetables on Clinical, Immunological, and Antioxidant Markers in Subjects at Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2018/5417165.pdf

No Effect of 600 Grams Fruit and Vegetables Per Day on Oxidative DNA Damage and Repair in Healthy Nonsmokers

https://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/cebp/12/10/1016.full.pdf

 Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials1

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/84/4/880/4633216

Vitamin C

Vitamin C in the Diet of Inuit Hunters From Holman, Northwest Territories

http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic32-2-135.pdf?level=1

 Reduced Mononuclear Leukocyte Ascorbic Acid Content in Adults With Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Consuming Adequate Dietary Vitamin C

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/002604959190165S

Flavonoid Inhibition of Sodium-dependent Vitamin C Transporter 1 (SVCT1) and Glucose Transporter Isoform 2 (GLUT2), Intestinal Transporters for Vitamin C and Glucose

https://www.jbc.org/content/277/18/15252.full.pdf

Medical experiments carried out in Sheffield on conscientious objectors to military service during the 1939–45 war

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.903.8107&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Vitamin C and Disease: Insights from the Evolutionary Perspective

https://escholarship.org/content/qt2z34h0kw/qt2z34h0kw.pdf

A review of natural antioxidants and their effects on oxidative status, odor and quality of fresh beef produced in Argentina (vitamin C content of meat)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22062902/

A prospective study of the intake of vitamins c,e, and a and the risk of breast cancer

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199307223290403

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